42. The dealer, having examined his hand, must declare to win at least
one odd trick, either with a declared suit, or at "no trumps."
43. After the dealer has made his declaration, each player in turn,
commencing with the player on the dealer's left, has the right to pass,
to make a higher declaration, to double the last declaration made, or
to redouble a declaration which has been doubled, subject to the
provisions of Law 54.
44. A declaration of a greater number of tricks in a suit of lower
value, which equals the last declaration in value of points, shall be
considered a higher declaration--e.g., a declaration of "Three
Spades" is a higher declaration than "One Club."
45. A player in his turn may overbid the previous adverse declaration
any number of times, and may also overbid his partner, but he cannot
overbid his own declaration which has been passed by the three others.
46. The player who makes the final declaration shall play the combined
hands of himself and his partner (the latter becoming dummy), unless
the winning suit was first bid by the partner, in which case he, no
matter what bids have intervened shall play the hand.
47. When the player of the two hands (hereinafter termed "the
declarer") wins at least as many tricks as he declared, he scores the
full value of the tricks won (see Laws 4 and 6). When he fails, neither
the declarer nor his adversaries score anything towards the game, but
his adversaries score in the honor column fifty points for each
under-trick--i.e., each trick short of the number declared; or,
if the declaration has been doubled, or redoubled, one hundred or two
hundred respectively for each such trick.
48. The loss on the original declaration by the dealer of "One Spade"
is limited to one hundred points whether doubled or not, unless
redoubled. Honors are scored as held.
49. If a player make a declaration (other than passing) out of turn,
either adversary may demand a new deal, or may allow the declaration so
made to stand, in which case the bidding shall continue as if the
declaration had been in order.
50. If a player make an insufficient or impossible declaration either
adversary may demand that it be penalized, provided such demand be made
before an adversary has passed, doubled or declared. In case of an
insufficient declaration the penalty is that the declarer must make his
bid sufficient and his partner is debarred from making any further
declaration unless an adversary subsequently bids or doubles. In case
of an impossible declaration the penalty is that the declarer is
considered to have bid to take all the tricks and his partner cannot
further declare unless an adversary subsequently bids or doubles.
Either adversary, instead of accepting the impossible declaration, may
demand a new deal or may treat his own or his partner's last previous
declaration as final.
51. If, after the final declaration has been made, an adversary of the
declarer give his partner any information as to any previous
declaration, whether made by himself or an adversary, the declarer may
call a lead from the adversary whose next turn it is to lead; but a
player is entitled to inquire, at any time during the play of the hand,
what was the final declaration.
52. A declaration legitimately made cannot be altered after the next
player has passed, declared or doubled. Prior to such action by the
next player, a declaration inadvertently made may be corrected.
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