Loto





There are many varieties of Loto, with pictures, flowers, letters, etc.,

instead of numbers, which are known as Picture Loto, Botanical Loto,

Spelling Loto, Geographical Loto, Historical Loto, and so on.



These are mostly games for children, and are played in exactly the same

way as numbered Loto.



This game in England is usually regarded as an amusement for young

children; but it is one capable of affording amusement to grown-up people,

as may be seen by the interest shown in "Keno" by the Americans.



"Keno," or American Loto, is played in various places of public resort,

by adults, for considerable stakes, and is esteemed capital practice in

reading numbers rapidly and correctly.



The requisite paraphernalia for this game--which may be played by any

number of persons, not exceeding twenty-four--are boxes containing

100 counters; 14 fishes, each of which is reckoned as 10 counters;

12 contracts, valued at 10 fish or 100 counters apiece; a pack of

24 very large cards with fifteen different numbers marked on each,

and a bag containing 90 knobs or discs, numbered from 1 to 90.



#==========================#

#5 11 33 50 76 #

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# 1722 43 65 89#

#--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--#

#2 2855 56 74 #

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Fig. 1.



In addition, a board with ten cavities cut therein for the purpose

of placing the knobs as drawn, is required.







A Loto card, on which are inscribed, in the manner shown in the diagram,

numbers ranging from 1 to 90--five numbers on each line, is represented in

fig 1. The units are arranged in the first column, the tens in the second,

the twenties in the third, and so on.



The number of these cards supplied in a Loto box varies, but the general

number is twenty-four, although sometimes there are only eighteen.

With twenty-four cards, each number appears in four different cards.



There are several different methods of playing this game, of which we will

give the two principal ones. The first method makes it a game of chance

and skill, or rather quickness in reading figures; and the second, purely

a game of luck.



First Method.--Before commencing the game, a dealer has to be chosen,

and his duties consist of shuffling the cards and dealing to each player

one or more cards. The dealer is unable to join in the game, and is

obliged to stand out.



Each player should stake a certain sum, which should be reserved for the

winner; and a certain number of counters of no value, but merely to be

used for covering the numbers as called, should be placed in the pool.



Sometimes each player contributes a certain number of counters to the pool,

then each saves out of his stake the number of counters he has on his card

or cards; and the winner obtains the money for his fifteen counters on his

card, and receives in addition all the pool which remains.



In order to render the game still more interesting, the contributions to

the pool should be so arranged that it is capable of being divided into

four parts. Then a fourth part of the pool is won by the player who first

succeeds in covering one horizontal row; another fourth part of the

pool is won by the player who first succeeds in covering two horizontal

rows, and the remaining half is reserved for the winner who first covers

the whole of his card.



The dealer then, having deposited the 90 knobs in a bag, draws them forth

rapidly, one by one, and calls out the number which appears or the knob in

a clear tone.



The player, having the corresponding number on his cards or cards, who

first answers to the number called, covers the number on the card or cards

with one of the counters in the pool, which should be so placed on the

table as to be available for the use of all the players.



The player who first succeeds in covering all the numbers on his card or

cards wins the game.



The Second Method.--Every player should draw two cards, and deposit

a stake previously agreed upon; and if the party is not too numerous,

then any may take four or six cards, laying down a double or treble stake

accordingly; and when the players are more than twelve, then some are only

to have one card, paying half a stake, and likewise should the players

not take all the cards among them, the remainder of the pack is to be

laid aside until some other persons join the set. From the cards not

taken, players may exchange one or more of those drawn, or they may change

with one another; similar exchanges, if the company consent, may also be

made previous to each drawing, and likewise prior to replenishing the pool.

Cards may be thrown up, or additional ones drawn from those put by;

stakes being paid proportionably.



The stakes are to be put together in a pool, placed in the middle of

the table, and also on the table there should be a quantity of counters

sufficient for the number of cards taken; upon the counters a value is to

be fixed adequate to the stakes first deposited, from the whole of which a

sum must be reserved, enough to pay, at the conclusion of the game,

all the counters laid upon the table.



Then, after counting the 90 knobs, so as to be certain they are right, the

eldest hand shall first shake them well together in the bag, and afterwards

draw out ten successively, not only declaring the number of each as drawn,

but also placing the same conspicuously on the board.



As soon as a number is declared, each player having that number on one

or more of his cards, is to take up counters, sufficient to lay one upon

that number every time it occurs, and so on until the ten knobs are drawn.

When only part of the pack is taken, and a number drawn happens not to be

upon any player's card, then the players may put away that knob till some

person takes a card on which it is printed.



When ten knobs are drawn out, every player examining the cards separately,

and having only one counter upon any horizontal line, wins for that no more

than the said counter, which is styled gaining by abstract; where two

counters are on the same horizontal line of a separate card, the player

gains an ambo, and becomes entitled to five counters besides the two;

when three are upon the same line, the player obtains a terne, and is

to receive 25 additional counters; if four are on the same line, that is

called a quaterne winning 100 counters additional; when five occur on

the same line, that makes a quinterne, gaining 250 additional counters,

and the player is entitled to payment out of the pool for all the

above-mentioned acquisitions previous to another drawing. Instead of

giving counters, payment for the same may at once be made from the stock

in the pool.



The knobs are then to be returned, and the bag given to the next player in

rotation, who is to shake the same, and draw, etc., as before stated.







Whenever the pool is exhausted, the players must contribute again,

according to the number of cards taken; and when it is resolved to finish

the game, they agree among themselves to have only a fixed number of

drawings more.



At the last drawing each player proceeds as heretofore directed, but the

drawing concludes when no more counters are left on the table. The players

then, beginning with the eldest hand, are to be paid out of the pool,

as far as the money will go; and when that is expended, the others remain

unpaid, which is styled a Bankruptcy; lastly, the players should re-unite

the counters obtained from the pool with those that were on their cards,

and receive payment for them out of the fund reserved at the commencement

of the game.



The counters requisite for the payment of the players are:--



For 24 cards 144 times ten.

" 18 " 108 "

" 12 " 72 "

" 6 " 36 "



Consequently, 60 counters should be contributed for every card taken by

a player





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